Mission: To promote the appreciation of wildlife and increase harmony between humanity and nature.

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Saturday, November 18, 2017

Neighbors

The look in this hooded merganser's eyes seems to invite the creation of captions. I can imagine the bird thinking, 'Seriously, with feet that large, you thought you could sneak up and take my picture?'


I do find that birds are aware of me long before I notice them. What seems to work best is to stop moving as soon as I see a bird. Often, when I become stationary, the bird will decide I am not a threat and return to whatever it was doing. This bird was preening and cleaning its tail feathers. 

It was especially fun to find and photograph hooded mergansers this week. It has been almost exactly six years since my first post - which, coincidently, was also about hooded mergansers. This makes sense because in November their numbers on Union Bay do seem to increase.

Here is an example of a male snorkeling for food. Unlike the western grebes which usually dive completely underwater when hunting, hooded mergansers sometimes hunt with just their eyes below the surface. This certainly seems like a dangerously exposed method of hunting. 

By the way if you happened to read last week's postElegant Assassins, before Martin Muller added his thoughts regarding western grebes, you may want to go back and read his post in the 'Comments' section. I found Martin's knowledge and comments fascinating.

Here is an example of the potential danger lurking high above the mergansers. Yesterday, Albert, the male eagle from the Broadmoor nest, was hanging out almost directly above the area where I photographed the mergansers. 

I was certain it was Albert when I saw, Eva, his  mate, pass by and inspire him to return to the nest. Given that female eagles are about fifty percent larger than the males, it was pretty obvious who was who.

Earlier in the day, a red-tailed hawk was stationed above the water on the other side of Foster Island. In both cases the windblown, leaf loss from the cottonwood trees is steadily improving their field of view.

Male hooded mergansers, with their large white-on-black cranial displays, sometimes 'telegraph' their moves.

When they begin lowering the feathers, and minimizing the white area, they are often preparing for action.

This file photo provides an example. When the top knot is minimized and the head is lowered close to the body, they are often about to dive.

On the other hand, when they extend their necks and maximize their displays, they are not thinking about food. In this situation I have always assumed they are trying to impress their mates. Although, it actually looks like the males are focused on each other while the females completely ignore their antics.

Regardless of their motives, I find these 'mating' displays joyful and refreshing, especially during the gray days of November. 

By the way, I don't ever remember hearing merganser calls. The two recordings, which I found on All About Birds, sound a bit like a frog and a raven. It makes me think I should pay closer attention. Maybe I have heard them in the past but not actually realized who was making the sound. In the future, I plan to listen more carefully when I am in their neighborhood.

I also found this wood duck and the surrounding yellow reflections to be a nice antidote to the grey clouds of fall.

This clean and pristine pair of gadwalls also attracted my attention. I don't ever remember seeing a male gadwall with so much white on its lower face and neck. I suspect it must be just individual variation. It may not be rare, but it is certainly striking.

Another refreshing surprise was to finally catch up with Goldie again. It has been a couple of months since I last saw her. It may be wishful thinking, but I do think her iris is looking a tiny bit more red. You can read more about her eye-color in the post, Elderberry Whine.

When I compare her eyestripe in the previous photo to this photo, from earlier in the year, I feel pretty confident this is the same bird. Plus, the fact that she is in the same territory also supports my thought. However, I was disappointed that I did not notice her mate, Chip, hanging around with her.

This last photo is less about the bird and more about the two swathes of parallel fall colors and reflections. I hope you enjoy it! By the way do not overlook the new surprise under the Going Native section below.

Have a great day on Union Bay...where nature lives in the city!

Larry

Going Native:

This week I am trying something different. A very well-read friend, Tom Cotner, kindly provided me with his personal reviews, of some of his favorite natural history books. Thank you! Tom - for attempting to help me widen the breadth and depth of my knowledge

Also, for folks who enjoy reading my blog and learning about nature, I am thinking that these books might make very nice holiday gifts. 

Tom's comments are in blue and mine are in white.

1) Botanicum -- Katie Scott and Kathy Willis editors

This is an extraordinary book, mostly because of its layout and wonderful drawings. It is about plants, but this way of presenting nature could be used to introduce readers to any topic of natural history. 

This is a wonderful book, however part of the reason Tom recommended it to me was because of the unique layout. I am very happy to own this book, but I feel I must mention that the age range listed on the back of the book is 8 - 12.

2) Dirt -- The Erosion of Civilization -- David R. Montgomery 
Wonderful overview of one of the most important topics--the preservation of our soil.

I just finished this book and I found it startling and amazing. It is disconcerting how much we overlook soil and at the same time how fundamentally important it is. It gave me a whole new perspective on the rise and fall of civilizations and on buying organic. Plus, I sure would like to learn more about the author's eco-lawn. 

The rest of the books, except for number eight - which I read a few years back, are on my reading-to-do list.

3) King of Fish -- The Thousand Year Run of Salmon -- David R. Montgomery  
Montgomery presents all aspects of salmon, their history and their importance to man.  This is basically natural history in disguise but Montgomery has total command of the subject and is fearless in his description of what we are doing wrong and what we need to be doing.

I have purchased but not read, King of Fish. However, another book on the subject which I found very enlightening was, Salmon, People and Place -- by Jim Lichatowich.

4) Diversity of Life -- E.O. Wilson (from 1992)  
You would expect a book from the early 90's to be dated, but it remains one of the true classics. Very thoughtful, very well written and still tremendously important.

My favorite scientist and author!

5) Here On Earth -- Tim Flannery
Flannery is a scientist but this book is more popular science. It is excellent! maybe it is because Australia is more in the crosshairs of environmental crisis (diminishing ozone layer, extreme weather), but Flannery writes about our endangered Earth as if the crisis is imminent and writes fiercely, as if it really matters.

6) Mycelium Running -- How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World -- Paul Stamets
This book includes a great summary of how fungi are important in the growth of most (almost all) plants, and the various ways they help maintain the world. Quite short, well organized, very readable. And the last section, the classification of fungi, can be skipped.

7) Serendipity -- An Ecologist's Quest to Understand Nature -- James A. Estes
This book explores the connectivity of nature, with all of its hidden and indirect paths. It is essentially a memoir, but it really breaks down a few fairly simple relationships between species in Alaska and shows how these species are interrelated in a very clear fashion.

8) The Final Forest -- Big Trees -- William Dietrich
Dietrich is a local writer who focuses on the Pacific Northwest and this is my one tree book recommendation (I have read more than 20 tree books and they are all very good to great!).

9) The Ripple Effect -- The Fate of Freshwater the 21st Century -- Alex Preud'homme
Prud'homme is a great writer and he discusses the many issues with drinking water around the world. It can be read as a cautionary tale, because water has become a political hot-button issue in many parts of the world (see, Flint, MI)

10 Moral Ground, Ethical Action for a Planet in Peril -- Kathleen Dean Moore, and Michael P. Nelson, Eds.
This is a book more in the philosophical vein and it discusses awareness and ethics of humankind's place on Earth.  There are other books like it, but I like what Moore (a professor at Oregon St.) and Nelson have done here.  It is broken up into fairly simple chapters so you can pick and choose those topics that interest you.


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The Email Challenge:

Over the years I have had many readers tell me that Google is no longer sending them email announcements regarding my posts. Even more frustrating when they go to 're-sign-up', hoping that will enable them to once again start receiving the announcements, they get a message which says 'Sorry, you are already signed up.' Google has not responded to my requests for help with this issue. 

My functional work around is to setup my own email list and each week I manually send out a new post announcement. If you are experiencing the issue and would like to be added to my personal email list please send me an email requesting to be added. Thank you for your patience!

My email address is LDHubbell@comcast.net


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Sunday, November 12, 2017

Elegant Assassins

The sharp precision of the bill, the laser-like focus of the eyes and the long, thin neck give western grebes the appearance of elegant assassins. In the fall, when these grebes return to Union Bay our local fish should be scared. 

I find it hard to imagine more elegant creatures. The evenly distributed dark and light coloring, off set by the bright eyes and the yellow bill, provide a salve for our souls during the dark days of fall and winter.

Surprisingly, when a western grebe looks you in the eye its, elegance evaporates. The full frontal view seems to amplify their intensity. Perhaps this fearless stare inspired the phrase, 'If looks could kill...'

On the other hand, when they relax and paddle in silent circles they look like little toy boats, and it can be very hard to imagine their deadly intentions for aquatic life.

When they stand up in the water, to flap their wings and dry off a bit, you can see how the coloring of their bodies is evenly divided. They are dark above and light below.

When viewed from below, their white bellies must help them blend in with the sky. Their dark backs help make them less obvious, when seen from above. This type of countershading can also be referred to as Thayer's Law. You can read more about Thayer and his life's work by Clicking Here.

Their wings appear to have a similar distribution of color.

With their feet attached at the rear of their bodies, they can not only stand up in the water, but they can also roll their bodies sideways while paddling about. This 90 degree turn puts the grebe's belly on one side and its back on the other while their head and neck remain vertical.

This is particularly handy when preening and cleaning feathers which are normally positioned below the waterline.

It can also be helpful when attempting to scratch the back of the head. It looks like every inch of the long neck is required for this endeavor.

I am guessing this grebe has finished resting and is stretching its mouth before resuming its feeding activities.

This assumption was reinforced when the bird's next immediate action was to stretch its neck and wings.

Catching a grebe in the process of diving is quite a challenge. Normally, by the time I am aware that they are beginning to dive, they are gone, leaving only a gentle ripple on the surface of the water.

When they come up from a dive they sometimes rid themselves of excess water by shaking like a dog. I must admit that in the case of a canine, the ears flapping from side to side adds a certain element humor. The elegant grebes apparently have no use for humor, or large flapping ears.


Even though western grebes are generally found in groups, or colonies, they do require a certain amount of elbow room. This bird is coiling its neck and preparing to chase off, or strike out at a bird which has encroached on its personal space.

I have yet to see another bird with the courage to stand and fight when faced with the sharp, spear-like bill of an irritated western grebe.

I felt like I could almost hear this coot saying, 'Run, run as fast as you can...'

'...you can't catch me I'm the gingerbread man!'

In the past I have only seen from one to three grebes at a time on Union Bay. In October, I was excited to see eight of them swimming near the shell house. Yesterday I spoke with Ingrid, who has seen as many as ten this fall. My friend Andy Jacobson, from my Master Birder class, mentioned that over 300 have been seen at Magnuson Park this weekend. I certainly hope this means their wintering numbers are increasing in the Seattle area. 

All About Birds states that western grebes are particularly sensitive to pesticides. If you find these birds as beautiful and elegant as I do, you can help increase their odds of survival by utilizing organic or mechanical methods of pest control.

Have a great day on Union Bay...where nature lives in the city!

Larry



Going Native:

Without a well-funded Environmental Protection Agency, it falls to each of us to be ever more vigilant in protecting our local environments. Native plants and trees encourage the largest diversity of lifeforms because of their long intertwined history with local, native creatures. I have been told that even the microbes in the soil are native to each local landscape. My hope is that we can inspire ourselves, our neighbors and local businesses to plant native flora and to support native wildlife at every opportunity. My intention is to include at least one photo each week and visually challenge us to know the difference between native and non-native lifeforms. Can you identify these birds? Are they native to Union Bay?









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Scroll down for the answers


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These are the first Trumpeter Swans that I have seen above Union Bay this fall. Yesterday, I could tell they were Trumpeter and not Tundra Swans by their trumpeting as they flew over. From the photo alone you should be perfectly satisfied with having identified that they were either one or the other. They are native to our area in the winter. I do wonder if their migration patterns will change as temperatures continue to rise.


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The Email Challenge:

Over the years I have had many readers tell me that Google is no longer sending them email announcements regarding my posts. Even more frustrating when they go to 're-sign-up', hoping that will enable them to once again start receiving the announcements, they get a message which says 'Sorry, you are already signed up.' Google has not responded to my requests for help with this issue. 

My functional work around is to setup my own email list and each week I manually send out a new post announcement. If you are experiencing the issue and would like to be added to my personal email list please send me an email requesting to be added. Thank you for your patience!

My email address is LDHubbell@comcast.net


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Saturday, October 28, 2017

Role Models

A Female Bushtit in an Indian Plum

I was heading home for lunch, after a morning of birdwatching in the Arboretum, when my eye caught a flicker of motion among the fading leaves of an Indian Plum. Silently searching between the twigs was a tiny, grey-brown Bushtit. 

Bushtits are gentle and unassuming. They do not wear the flashy yellow colors of warblers. Nor do they have the reflective red brilliance and repulsive egos of a male Anna's Hummingbird. I have also never seen Bushtits attack each other, or their neighbors, in the manner of Crows. (Click Here to see Crows fighting.)


Two Male Bushtits sharing a branch. Can you spot the difference between these males and the female in the prior photo?

I was not surprised to find multiple Bushtits in the area. Bushtits seem to share everything -  their feeding locations, their roosting spots, their nests and even parenting. Anytime you spot one Bushtit you can expect that there are more close by.

It was lucky for me that the bushtits were in an Indian Plum, which are considered a shrub or at most a small tree. Given the plant's short stature, the Bushtits were right at eye level. Because it is October, many of the leaves have fallen, which made the birds easier to see and photograph. In addition, most of the remaining leaves were wearing a delicate shade of yellow which provided a nice background glow for the photos.

I soon realized that I had been fortunate in another fashion. I was standing directly in the path of the hard-working little flock. For the next 10 minutes, as soon as one or two bushtits would fly up into the tree above my head, three or four more would come in from the opposite direction. The whole flock must have worked their way through the Indian Plum before moving on.

A few of the Bushtits sat for a moment or two, which for them, is a very long break.

Generally, they are virtually nonstop in their search for food. Birds of North America (citation below) implies that at 68 degrees Farenhiet, Bushtits need to eat eighty percent of their body weight every day. It is a good thing that Bushtit parents sometimes have helpers at the nest, otherwise, how could they possibly provide enough food for themselves and for their offspring.

I often loose track of Bushtit flocks. While the others are moving on, I am consistently focused on the last little bird. When the 'slowpoke' darts away, faster than I can track, I am often left turning in circles while searching the empty branches of nearby trees. It does not help that I can no longer hear most of their high pitched calls. 

This week I made more of an effort to spilt my focus between the progress of the flock and the most photogenic individuals. This enabled me to tag along behind as they darted and  dashed from one tree to the next.

The dying leaves of the Vine Maple lacked the lingering yellow of the Indian Plum. I was very surprised to realize that the Indian Plum still has yellow leaves this late in the year. In the Spring, I see the first yellow leaves on Indian Plum about the same time as the Wilson's Warblers arrive. Among native plants, the Indian Plum is also one of the first to provide ripe fruit.

While individually the Bushtits appeared to move randomly, the flock as a whole moved as unit. On some trees they barely stopped, while on others they flickered about from branch to branch while thoroughly harvesting the insect bounty. I began to wonder if their flocks have leaders. 

I really like this side view of a Bushtit's talons. Even though it would take a half a dozen Bushtit's to weigh more than an ounce, the deadly curvature of the claw makes it clear that they are the distant descendants of dinosaurs. I wonder if there were mild-mannered dinosaurs.

The female's have a light colored iris, the males do not.

While thinking about the concept of a leader, I concluded Bushtits probably don't have just one. I am guessing their constant calls tell the trailing members where the flock is at. I suspect the birds in the lead change depending who spots the next most promising tree and which bird is the first to consume all of their currently available food. Those in the lead find food first, but they are also at risk of being found first - by predators. 

The birds in the center of the flock are more likely to be warned by distress calls when the birds at the edge come under attack. Being part of a flock, with rotating roles and dozens of eyes and ears, can certainly help mitigate the individual risk while also helping the group as a whole to survive.

This train of thought caused me to realize, that it is not really leadership which enables a high functioning flock, it is actually communication. It made me wonder, will it someday be possible for human communications to supersede our need for leaders. I really don't have any idea how such a society would function. However, if we look at Bushtits as roles models there are a few things which appear certain. Bushtits share almost everything - from danger to parenting responsibilities. They appear to all be treated equally. I have never noticed them arguing over territories, nest sites or mates, apparently, they have no egos. We could do worse for role models.

Have a great day on Union Bay...where Bushtits thrive in the city!

Larry

Going Native:

Without a well-funded Environmental Protection Agency, it falls to each of us to be ever more vigilant in protecting our local environments. Native plants and trees encourage the largest diversity of lifeforms because of their long intertwined history with local, native creatures. I have been told that even the microbes in the soil are native to each local landscape. My hope is that we can inspire ourselves, our neighbors and local businesses to plant native flora and to support native wildlife at every opportunity. My intention is to include at least one photo each week and visually challenge us to know the difference between native and non-native lifeforms. Can you identify this creature? Is it native to Union Bay?













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Scroll down for the answers


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The photos are all of Banded Woolly Bears (BWB). This week I tried doing a close up which turned out to be less interesting than I expected. On the other hand, my research into the creature turned out to be more interesting than I expected. Did you know they can survive being frozen? Do you know what creature they become when they grow up? Here are three different links, each explains a slightly different perspective on this fascinating creature.

The University of Alberta

Ohio State University

Butterflies and Moths of North America




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The Email Challenge:

Over the years I have had many readers tell me that Google is no longer sending them email announcements regarding my posts. Even more frustrating when they go to 're-sign-up', hoping that will enable them to once again start receiving the announcements, they get a message which says 'Sorry, you are already signed up.' Google has not responded to my requests for help with this issue. 

My functional work around is to setup my own email list and each week I manually send out a new post announcement. If you are experiencing the issue and would like to be added to my personal email list please send me an email requesting to be added. Thank you for your patience!

My email address is LDHubbell@comcast.net


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Recommended Citation

Sloane, Sarah A. 2001. Bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.598